World fisheries production at the end of 2018 is more than180 m MT, while FAO database recorded the fishery production up to 2014 was 167.2 m MT (FAO, 2016), out of which total capture fishery share was 93.4 m (55.86%) and aquaculture share was 73.8 m MT.
More than 87% of this production, i. e. 146.3 MT was consumed by the human being, and thus per capita fish food consumption per annum stood for 20.1 kg. It is expected that global fish production will increase to fulfill the requirement of the increased world population. On the other hand, FAO has predicted that the present global fish price of about 3000 USD/MT will be decreased to about30% in 2025 (FAO,2016 ). It would be a positive sign that consumer will get fish at a cheaper price, but at the same time, there will be a negative impact of getting lesser farm-house price because of
increased input costs world- wide. This scenario already exists in many Southeast Asian fish producing countries (DoF, 2017). To increase the farmhouse price, smart entrepreneurship development through value addition in the production and supply chain in fisheries is thus pivotal, in order to cope up with the desires of the consumers in the 21st century, in product variety and diversification, either non- conventional or innovative product forms.
Upcoming Challenges and Measures
As we all know that the present global population is 7.3 billion, which will reach to 9.6 billion by 2050 (2014). To meet the requirements of protein nutrition for extra 2.3 billion people, additional fishery elements need to be produced is 60 m MT. Only in Bangladesh, another 4 m MT of fish will be required by 2050. Where does this need come from? Rational answer is aquaculture. Because, due to excessive human activity and exploitation, capture fisheries will not keep any room open for reasonable recruitment every year for sustainable growth of apparently huge renewable open water resources. On the other hand, even within aquaculture, scopes of expansion will be scarce in inland components, except some vertical expansion will to expand, mainly due to narrowed water bodies, habitat destruction and aquaculture-agriculture conflict. Vertical expansion inland watersheds may include semi-intensification to intensification, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), in-pond raceway system (IPRS), bio- flock aquaculture, etc. On the other hand, vast opportunity will remain open for coastal and brackish water aquaculture and mariculture, because of extensive culture area, more and more non-conventional, non-native species to grow and unknown aquaculture systems, approaches and technologies to adopt in huge marine waters. However, uncontrolled aquaculture expansion in both inland and coastal waters may have increased risk in environmental pollution, climate change and climate variability adaptations and seafood safety. The challenges that the future aquaculture may face are:-
- Increased intensification will allow more disease out-break and disease emergence;
- Continued diversification of species and farming system will bring increased risk of introduction and spread of pathogens, trans-boundary pathogens;
- Economic and social costs of the disease will be enormous;
- Quality of the product will be doubtful and unsafe, since aquaculture system may include antibiotics and drugs to prevent disease, both fish and feed may contain toxic heavy metals, sex reversed seed may contain residual hormones or changed water or soil qualities may act as stressors, making fish more susceptible to infection and pathogen carriage.
Thus, risks of future aquaculture, associated with climate change and climate variability impacts, may bring into enormous challenges in seafood production, business and consumption.
Existing fishery employment and entrepreneurship in Bangladesh and Southeast Asia:
Now, let us see some of the existing fishery employment and entrepreneurship in Bangladesh, which are mostly common in many Asian fish producing countries:
Indian Ocean costs;
- Fish farming, although age-old practice, has now got new dimensions with semi- intensification to highly intensive, from traditional pond aquaculture to RAS system;
- Integrated aquaculture- agriculture, rice-fish farming or poultry/duck-cum fish culture also have become profitable business, nevertheless poultry litter has been ban in fish production;
- Induced breeding, hatchery operation and fry rearing along with over- wintering of juveniles are profitable practices along the
- Commercial and backyard hatchery operation for both fish and shrimp and fish seed marketing have changed the economy and empowerment of the rural people;
- Large-scale commercial fish farming has received tremendous interest;
- Commercial fish feed production and marketing is huge;
- To cope up with increased aquaculture, local level feed production has been running in parallel to make rural aquaculture a social revolution;
- Contract fishing in large farms/leased water bodies has been developed as a profession for the true fishermen who lost their livelihood due to leasing out of most of the inland water bodies;
- New fishery trade is developed like purchase of fish at farm-house and sell to distant secondary markets;
- Live fish transport, water recharging at live fish container, mechanical agitation, air blowing in live fish container or other mechanizations find ample profit in fishery trades;
- Cage culture of tilapia in open waters, mud crab culture in coastal areas, seaweed culture, pearl culture, oyster and clamp culture, etc. have been very promising in many Asian countries and also taking an organized shape now a days in Bangladesh;
- Transportation and trade of wet fish, operation of auction centers, ice manufacture, ice- crushing service, ice-box and crates manufacture, ice-crushing machine, etc. have been coming forward as emerging business avenues in fishery trade;
- Cool chain distribution of fish and fish sale in affluent chain outlets through cool chamber display is now an attractive business in metropolitan cities;
- Boat building, net making and mending, manufacture of fish preservation, processing, transportation equipment and vehicles, manufacture and maintenance of cool chain
distribution and display machineries, etc. are getting into the mainstream business among fishery professionals in coastal areas.
Smart entrepreneurship development to meet 21 Century aspirations
Since many of the water bodies, particularly the vast area of coastal and brackish waters are underutilized in terms of intensive aquaculture, coastal aquaculture, mariculture and ancillary processing and value-addition, ample opportunities are prevailed in the private sector for income generation, job creation and revenue earnings by improving, adapting and utilizing sustainable technologies. These may include the following:
- Fry production and distribution of commercial species through selective breeding:
- Salt-tolerant fast-growing species- carp, catfish, tilapia, pangas, mugil and other suitable freshwater and estuarine species
- River shad for estuarine cages, river-inlets and coastal waters
- Mass seed production of seabass, Indian salmon, snappers and groupers, cobia, etc.
- Seed production of mollusks and arthropods: shrimp, prawn, mud-crabs, loligo, sepia, etc.
- Coastal aquaculture and mariculture
- Development of traditional coastal gher and pond aquaculture
- Sustainable cage culture, box culture, pen culture
- Automation in coastal fish cage technology
– Zero-wastes recirculation system innovation
- Cost-effective floating feed manufacture
- Preventive and theraputive drugs for existing and future disease control
- Culture of non-conventional species (including non-fish elements):
- Squid, cuttlefish, sea-urchin, sea cucumber, etc
- Oyster, clamp, green mussels, etc
- Culture of seaweed rich in bio-functional materials
- Innovation in aquaculture:
- Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS)
- In-pond Raceway System (IPRS)
- Bio-block technology in aquaculture
- All-plant based smart feeding technology
- Seafood processing and trade:
- Conventional handling, preservation, processing, storage- considering quality & safety
- Innovation in processing of non-conventional aquatic produce
- Innovation in value added products:
Textural products – mince, surimi, nugget, ball, stick, finger, sausage and ham, analog and fabricated seafood – like analog shrimp/analog crab leg/meat etc.
Dried/ smoked squid/cuttle fish Peptides/concentrated fish proteins/fish powder
Fish chatny/achar/pickles, etc from fish and non-fish aquatic organisms and plants Fortification of low-cost seafood protein in school-feeding, adult-aged feeding program, etc.
- Biotechnology in seafood processing:
- Extraction of bio-active compounds- peptides/anti-oxidants/bio-molecules
- Extraction of functional ingredients, biopolymers- agar, carrageenan, etc.
- Novel drugs and health-care products- anti cancer drugs, vitamins, chitin, chitosan, collagen, cosmetics, etc.
- Extraction of nutraceuticals- PUFA, EPA, DHA, lever oil, peptides, etc.
- Extraction of bio-fuels
- Biological prospecting-discovery of novel genes that lead to commercial development of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, etc.
- Distribution and marketing of seafood:
- Sanitized ice-production and distribution;
- Ideal wet fish outlet
- Ideal ice box manufacture
- Mechanization in live fish transport
- Cool chain distribution rental
- Seafood processing and packaging rental
- Ideal street vending of seafood
- Manufacture of processing equipment
- Manufacture of packaging equipment
To achieve a smart and profitable entrepreneurship development in fisheries, skilled manpower is always a prime necessity. For that, effectively functional and need-based education, research and development programmes should be in place. Course curricula in the undergraduate and graduate programmes should be re-vitalized in line with the sustainable aquaculture and fisheries development, in order to produce functionally pro-active human resource for application and extension of research findings to face the challenges of 21 century aquaculture and fisheries. The approach to harness full utilization of inland, coastal and marine resources and to draw maximum possible benefits out of seafood business needs functionally coordinated, inclusive and peoples centered initiatives.
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